各位学霸们好,今天是PTE写作部分Summarize Written Text专场,黄老师给大家带来本周的SWT真题以及解析。



SWT#4 – Overqualified workers

SWT#7 – Australian Food

SWT#11 – Compulsory Voting in Australia

SWT#14 – American and Indian IT

SWT #19 – Khoikhoi

SWT #20 – Online Learning

SWT #26 – Parents Control Children Watching TV

SWT#33 – Mini War

SWT#45 – African Dark Earths

SWT#52 – Wright Brother and aircraft






1.    文章重点信息的选择



2.    文章重点句的删减

一般来说文章的句子如果直接合并的话有可能出现字数超过75字 / 语法冲突的情况,这样的话就需要同学们把文章的信息进行删减了,这一步需同学们进行针对SWT的语法强化,否则就有可能出现删掉了重点信息 or 删减后语法错误。


3.    文章信息合并成一句话

同样的,这一步需要扎实的语法功底。同学们切勿相信网上的无脑模版(常见的有多个and / but / so / 分号连接文章句子的形式)。这一部分原则较为复杂,黄老师会在下下期《PTE避雷针》小课堂中提到SWT一句话的dos and don’ts,同学们请记得关注黄老师观看哦!






SWT#7 – Australian Food

In the past two centuries there has been a dramatic change in the role of food and eating in Australian public consciousness. Public discussion of food was largely confined to matters of supply, distribution and price. Towards the end of the nineteenth century some newspapers were offering regular columns of advice on housekeeping topics, including menu planning and recipes. However, eating remained essentially a private activity, even when undertaken in company.By the late twentieth century, food and eating had become prominent public preoccupations. Evidence of this dramatic cultural revaluation abounds. In bookstores, for example, cookery and all things related to it are often among the larger displays. There are specialty stores selling all manner of cookware, tableware and other paraphernalia associated with food, eating and drinking.
Perhaps most telling is the extension of the phenomenon of 
mass media celebrity to include culinary personalitiesScholars, too, have jumped on the commodification bandwagon. Now degrees in gastronomy seem set to emulate the MBA phenomenon of the 1980s and food has become a respectable subject for investigation with philosophers, sociologists, historians, cultural theorists, ecologists and many others all having a go at it.However, surprisingly, the question seems to have held little fascination for most historians. For the best part of two centuries they have managed to write their accounts of colonisation and nationhood with only scant reference to how the settlers and their descendants fed themselves.



In Australia, eating remained essentially a private activity in nineteenth century while food and eating had become prominent public preoccupationsby the late twentieth century, but the question seems to have held little fascination for most historians althoughculinary personalities and scholars are involved in the public preoccupations for food.


In the past two centuries there has been a dramatic change in the role of food and eating in Australian public consciousness whereas eating remained essentially a private activity, and by the late twentieth century, food and eating had become predominant public preoccupations including mass media and scholars whereas the question seems to have held fascination for most historians.






SWT#11 – Compulsory Voting in Australia

A democratic country should have the right to decide whether to vote or not. It is strange that after decades of crawling up the political backside of the US, Australians don’t have that right. Being fined for not voting reminds me of the old saying “you can lead a horse to water but you cannot make him drink”. The fine is not for failing to vote but for failing to have your name marked off a list! Forcing people to make a decision just means they’ll make the easiest, quickest decision they can, not the best one. You need an informed electorate for compulsory voting to work. However, the reality is that nobody knows anything about the candidates and promotional material is not readily available. I’d rather 80% of people didn’t vote than have them all just pick the first recognisable name on the ballot sheet. Then at least the government is elected by the 20% who care and make informed decisions. Otherwise it is largely pot chance who gets elected. Furthermore, compulsory voting doesn’t ensure that the entire electorate is engaged in the democratic process. Those who don’t want to vote can simply turn up and get their name marked off, without even putting pencil to paper. But you’re seriously deluding yourself if you think that this is what all those who don’t care about government do when they turn up to the polling booth. Voluntary voting at least ensures those who vote are the ones that care enough to do so. Perhaps somebody could enlighten me as to the reason why, to the best of my knowledge, Australia is the only ‘democracy’ that has compulsory voting. It is certainly not compulsory in the USA, England, Canada, New Zealand, Philippines or any other European or Asian democracy that I am aware of. Compulsory voting is, however, mandatory in most communist regimes.


Australia is the only democracy country that has compulsory voting whereas compulsory voting is mandatory in most communist regimes, and forcing people to vote just means they’ll make the easiest and quickest decision instead of the best one while compulsory voting doesn’t ensure that entire electorate is engaged in the democratic process






SWT #19 – Khoikhoi

In around 2300 BP (Before Present), hunter gatherers called the San acquired domestic stock in what is now modern-day Botswana. Their population grew and spread throughout the Western half of South Africa. They were the first pastoralists in southern Africa, and called themselves Khoikhoi (or Khoe), which means ‘men of men’ or ‘the real people’. This name was chosen to show pride in their past and culture. The Khoikhoi brought a new way of life to South Africa and to the San, who were hunter gatherers as opposed to herders. This led to misunderstandings and subsequent conflict between the two groups. The Khoikhoi were the first native people to come into contact with the Dutch settlers in the mid-17th centuryAs the Dutch took over land for farms, the Khoikhoi were dispossessed, exterminated, or enslaved and therefore their numbers dwindled. The Khoikhoi were called the ‘Hottentots’ by European settlers because the sound of their language was so different from any European language, and they could not pronounce many of the words and sounds.


Hunter gatherers called the San were the first pastoralists in southern Africa and called themselves Khoikhoi while the Khoikhoi brought a new way of life to the San and led to conflict between the two groups, and the Khoikhoi were the first native people to come into contact with the Dutch settlers whereas the Dutch, who called the Khoikhoi ‘Hottentots’, dwindled number of the Khoikhoi by dispossessing, exterminating, or enslaving.




SWT#33 – Mini War

In such an environment, warfare is no longer purely directed against the military potential of adversarial states. It is rather directed at infiltrating all areas of their societies and to threaten their existences. The comparatively easy access to weapons of mass destruction, in particular relatively and low-cost biological agents, is of key concern. Both governmental and non-governmental actors prefer to use force in a way that can be characterized as “unconventional” or also as “small wars”. War waged according to conventions is an interstate phenomenon.
The “small war” is the archetype of war, in which the protagonists acknowledge no rules and permanently try to violate what conventions do exist. The protagonists of the “small war” observe neither international standards nor arms control agreements. They make use of territories where they do not have to fear any sanctions because there is no functioning state to assume charge of such sanctions or because the state in question is too weak to impose such sanctions. This type of war does not provide for any warning time. It challenges not only the external security of the nation states and international community, but also their internal safety.

参考答案(这篇文章所有信息都需要围绕着mini war,而不是conventional war来展开)

Warfare is directed at infiltrating all areas of adversarial states ‘societies and to threaten their existences while both governmental and non-governmental actors prefer to use force in a way that can be characterized as small wars, which is the archetype of war, and the protagonists make use of territories without any sanctions while small war does not provide for any warning time and challenges internal and external security.





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